The local Madurese name for the regency, Songènèb, is formed from the Kawi phrases sung, meaning a basin or valley, and ènèb, meaning quiet. Thus, the word translates to "quiet valley". The name has been known since the time of the medieval Hindu-Buddhist kingdom of Singhasari. In particular, it is mentioned in the Pararaton. This document described the exile of Sumenep of Arya Wiraraja, a royal adviser to the last king of Singhasari, Kertanegara. Wiraraja was sent to the eastern Madurese dukedom, and eventually became a prominent figure in the creation of the Majapahit empire.
The text reads: Hanata Wongira, babatangira buyuting Nangka, Aran Banyak Wide, Sinungan Pasenggahan Arya Wiraraja, Arupa tan kandel denira, dinohaksen, kinun adipati ring Sungeneb, anger ing Madura wetan which translates as: It is a servant, a descendant of the chairman of Nangka village, called Banyak Wide, provisionally named Arya Wiraraja, apparently not trusted, was ordered held in Sumenep duchy in the east of Madura.
In the era of Singhasari, the Sumenep area was ruled by Arya Wiraraja, a Duke and Royal Advisor to King Kertanegara and the eventual mastermind of the creation of the Singhasari's successor state, the Majapahit Empire. According to Pararaton, a manuscript describing the history of the kings of Singhasari and Majapahit, Arya Wiraraja was expelled to the eastern Madurese dukedom of Sumenep because he fell out of favor with Wisnuwardhana (id), the King immediately preceding Kertanegara, on October 31, 1269 CE.
According to the Tjareta Negraha Songenep, the Dutch East India Company came to the Sumenep region during the administration of Yudonegoro (id) (1648-1672), a friend of Trunojoyo. Trunojoyo eventually was defeated by the Dutch and afterwards the company ruled there. The Dutch continued to govern Sumenep after the death of Yudonegoro. In 1704, the Dutch signed a treaty that recognized the sovereignty of Prince Puger, the third sunan of the Surakarta Sunanate. He opposed Amangkurat III over the succession of the Mataram Sultanate, in Plered. As part of the treaty, Puger ceded parts of Java and Madura, including Sumenep, to the Dutch.
During the reign of Cokronegoro IV (1744-1749), Ke'Lesap led a revolt from Bangkalan to challenge the Dutch rule. He only ruled Sumenep for a year before being deposed by Tirtonegoro, a descendant of Yudonegoro, who married a cleric, Bendoro Saud. Saud was crowned by the Dutch as the duke of Sumenep; due to this, the region was ruled by two monarchs from 1750 to 1762. The duke was succeeded by his son, Raden Asirudin, after a request by his parents. He ruled the region from 1762 to 1811 and was notable for building the Palace and Grand Mosque of Sumenep. Asirudin was briefly succeeded by his son, Kusumadiningrat, but after a few months he was displaced by the Dutch to Pasuruan and replaced by Tirtadiningrat, who was crowned as Sultan Pakunataningrat I by the Dutch, signifying the dukedom's change to a sultanate.
Unique among the Indonesian colonies of the Dutch, Sumenep was given a certain autonomy to self-govern itself, with the Dutch supervising the region through contracts and treaties established with the Sultans. From 1883 though, the Dutch decided to assert more direct rule by subjecting the region to the Dutch East Indies.
The Dutch colonial rule began to build facilities in line with the ethical policy during the administration of Pratamingkusumo (1901-1926), including a dam in Kebon Agung river, a Hollandsch-Inlandsche School (HIS) for Indonesian students, increased transportation, and a saltworks in Kalianget district.
During the Indonesian National Revolution post-independence, the city of Sumenep was attacked by five Dutch aircraft on November 11, 1947. Despite resistance by locals, the area was subjugated, alongside other areas of Madura island, by the Dutch. After the establishment of the United States of Indonesia in 1948, Madura island became a separate state from the central Indonesian state until the federal government's dismantle to become the Republic of Indonesia.
Sumenep Regency is located at the eastern end of Madura Island; it also includes 126 scattered islands located between 113 ° 32'54 "-116 ° 16'48" East Longitude and between 4 ° 55'-7 ° 24 'South latitude.
The regency is bordered to the south by the Strait of Madura and Bali Sea, to the north by the Java Sea, to the west by Pamekasan Regency (the only land border) and to the east by the Java Sea and Flores Sea.
The total area of Sumenep Regency is 1,998.5 km²: this was formerly quoted as comprising 179.32 km² of settlements, 423.96 km² of forest, 14.68 km² of grass area or vacant land, 1,130.19 km² of farm/moor/bush/field, 59.07 km² of pool/aquaculture/brackish water/lakes/reservoirs/wetlands, and 63.41 km² of "other" areas. The area of sea of Sumenep Regency, with its vast the diversity of marine resources and potential for fishery, is about 50,000 km ² +.
Sumenep Regency is divided into twenty-seven districts (kecamatan), listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census:
The districts are subdivided (as at 2007) into:
Mineral Resources in Sumenep Regency are quite varied. They consist of Class "C" minerals: phosphates, limestone, calcite / rock star, gypsum, quartz sand, dolomite, kaolin clay and stone.
Sumenep in addition has the potential of the natural wealth of minerals group C, also have strategic minerals in the form of group A which is located on the island of Pulau Besar Pagerungan Sapeken Throughout the District, River Island Giligenting. Based on the passage of time than in the three island there are still some places that contain indications of gas and petroleum. Among them around the island Masalembu, Aquatic Kalianget, Raas and Block Island waters Kangean
Based on the aspects of geomorphology, water resources in Sumenep are divided in 4 (four) units of the region: a). Plateau region b). Fine Wavy Hills area c). Coarse Wavy Hills region d). Separate Hills area
Based on data of 2010 wetland in Sumenep 23 852 ha, divided into 13 388 ha (56.13%) rainfed land, 5385 hectares (22.57%) technical berpengairan land, 1959 hectares of land technically spring, 1071 Ha of land is simple 2049 Ha of land use and rural irrigation. The use of land especially paddy land not include the yard, tegal, plantation, farm, field for dry rice cultivation, grassland, while the land is not cultivated, forests, state forests, marshes, ponds, pools etc.
Crops can be grouped into two parts, namely commodity rice (paddy rice and upland rice) and the commodity crops (corn, soybeans, peanuts, green beans, cassava and sweet potatoes).
Vegetable commodities grown by farmers in Sumenep the year 2008 based on data from BPS (Source: Department of Agriculture Sumenep) is the largest onion 18117.1 Kw with production quantities decreased the amount of production by 64.42% from the previous year. Lombok in 2008 is the largest commodity, in the year 2009 decreased by 89.28% from the previous idea. While the change in the amount of production of other commodities such as vegetables: beans, cucumbers, eggplant, kale, spinach and tomatoes are not too significant. For commodity total production of fruits is quite varied. Mango production number 652 401 Kw with the highest fruit commodity in terms of both total production amounting to Rp. 127 218 195 000, -. For other commodities such as fruits: banana, papaya, orange, guava, rambutan, sapodilla, Blimbing, barking and avocado invaluable variety
Based on statistical data of 2010 (Source: Department of Plantation and Forestry Perhutanioffice Sumenep and Madura in Pamekasan KPH), the production of plantation commodities and forestry in Sumenep very varied. For the production of plantation crops, the amount of oil production is the highest 35068.66 50059.06 tons with total area of Ha. As for the production of tobacco as a commodity Sumenep excellent for farmers in particular the quantity has decreased by 39.10% from the previous year. Tobacco plants as a favorite commodity known as gold leaf that can change behavior and improve the welfare of tobacco farmers. Tobacco land area 10377.94 hectares in 2010, with a total of 2,917.62 tons of total production.
on production estimates, potential resources of fish in ocean waters capable of producing Sumenep of 50,000 km2 per year x 4.58 ton = 22,000 tons per year. Meanwhile, according to estimates of potential sustainable source of 60% calculated from the number of existing potential or 60% x 229 000 t = 137 400 tonnes per year. Development of fishery production is directed to improving the welfare of fishermen through increased production and productivity of business-oriented agribusiness. Fisheries production reached Sumenep district in 2009 to reach the sea fisheries 44900.2 tons per year or 32.68% of the sustainable potential (an increase of 10:09% from the previous year) with a production value of Rp. 169 553 210 000, -.
large livestock population in the largest and specific Sumenep the cow. Proved in 2010 the cattle population of about 249 073 individuals (98.61% increase from the previous year) are still traditionally managed as a working cattle, producing manure, and penchant for savings. Advantages, especially beef cattle Sumenep Madura with other areas on the island of Madura where the type is the same:
- Resistant to specific diseases, have the ability to adapt to unfavorable natural conditions. - Have a good response to the improvement of feed through the increase of feed protein and energy devoted to the consideration of optimal body weight. - Have the type of beef cattle and meat of good quality.
Livestock other than cattle are raised by the public many Sumenep particularly island communities in the District Arjasa, Kangayan, and Sapeken is the buffalo. Other large livestock population is the horse. Many small livestock kept in Sumenep in the year 2010 was a goat, sheep, and rabbits. As for the poultry is free-range chicken, chicken, duck and wild duck.
Growth and development of industry in Sumenep is determined by the development and growth of four industries include natural gas industry; large industrial / chemical / heavy, small industrial and large industrial, industrial and heavy metals are not in Sumenep. Existing in Sumenep only a small industry and handicrafts that employment is not so much. There is little industry in Sumenep able to absorb the amount of labor as much as 797 people, with overall production value amounting to Rp. 18.1881 billion, - with an investment of Rp. 62,124,563,000, -.
Before Indonesia's independence, Sumenep district ruled by a Duke of (King / Rato: according to local context Sumenep) under the dominion of the kingdoms that once ruled the archipelago, among others, the Kingdom of Singhasari, the kingdom of Majapahit, and Mataram kingdom. Sumenep Duchy's territory covers almost the entire territory of Madura, and its surrounding islands. Here's a list of the Duke who ruled in Sumenep from year 1269 until 1929
List of Duke in Sumenep
to the list can be found here Daftar Bupati Sumenep
Epithets and slogans
Sumenep itself has a motto "Sumekar", an acronym of "Sumenep Karaton". Meaning of the word itself is constantly evolving Sumekar (bloom) in accordance with the development of a national revolution that continues to grow "in the rising fever" for the realization of the ideals of Pancasila. For the sake of tourism Sumenep introduction, itself has a brand "Sumenep The Heart of Purity", Sumenep addition also has several nicknames, including the Earth Sumekar, City of Culture Art, Travel Town, "Jogjanya" Madura and Islands Kangean as Pulau Cukir for nicknames.
Based on the results of the 2010 Census enumeration, the total population is 1,041,915, consisting of 495,099 men and 546,816 women. The district with the greatest population is Sumenep City with 70,794 people (6.75%), followed by Pragaan District with 65,031 persons (5.90%) and Arjasa District with 59,701 people (5.73%). Sex ratio of Sumenep's population according to the 2010 Census is at 90.54 i.e. the number of males is smaller by 9.46%. With an area of about 2,093.47 km², the population density is 498 people/km². The district with the highest level of density is the town of Sumenep with 2,543/km², and the lowest population density is 446/km2 the rock district.
Sumenep's population growth rate during the last 10 years, i.e. from the year 2000-2010 averages at 0.55%. Sapeken district's population growth rate was the highest compared to other districts excl Sumenep which amounted to 1.60%, and the lowest was -0.36% for Talango excl. Number of Households by the SP2010 is 315 412 RT, with an average of 3.30 persons per household.
Tourism is one of the leading potential in Sumenep. There are several types of tourism potential, which can be grouped into:
Tourism Culture and Architecture
- Sumenep Palace Museum is a museum run by the local government in which Sumenep a good collection of objects of cultural heritage family heritage palaces Sumenep and some relics of the Hindu kingdoms such as statues of Buddha and Vishnu linga is found in Dunkek district, Sumenep. In the museum there are also several collections of heritage relics such as pottery jars Sumenep Nobility of China and Kareta My Lord granting the United Kingdom to the Sultan Abdurrahman Pakunataningrat I for his services that have helped Thomas Stamford Raffles, one of the British Governor in his research in Indonesia.
- Sumenep palace is a heritage relic Sumenep built by King / Duke Sumenep to 31, Panembahan Somala and expanded by his descendants, namely Sri Sultan Abdurrahman I. Pakunataningrat Sumenep own Palace is located right in front of the Palace Museum Sumenep, Sumenep Jamik mosque is a building that has a distinctive architecture, integrating different cultures into a unique and magnificent, built by Panembahan Somala who ruled in 1762-1811M by architect of tionghoa "law pia ngho"
- Kalianget Old Town is located in the eastern city of Sumenep, here visitors can see relics of the salt factory, colonial architecture and some of the defenses built by the Colonial Government as Sumenep occupied territories,
- Traditional House Traditional Madura Tanean Lanjhang, can be found in some areas towards the coast and towards the coast slopeng waves,
- Kalimo'ok VOC fortress in Kalianget.
Tourism Religious / Pilgrimage
- Asta Karang Sabu is a family cemetery of King / Duke Sumenep who ruled in the 15th century the Prince Ario kanduruan, Prince and Prince Wetan Lor. This reef area meth Sumenep government he led at the time. - Asta Tinggi Sumenep cemetery is the cemetery of the Kings Sumenep which was built in 1644 M High altitude areas are located in the Kebon Agong Sumenep. - Asta Yusuf is one tomb of the missionaries of Islam on the island Talango, the tomb was discovered by Sri Sultan Abdurrahman Pakunataningrat when to Bali in 1212 Hijra (1791), - Asta Katandur is one Islamic missionaries graves in Sumenep, Prince Katandur is also one of the characters who are experts in the field of agriculture and according to various sources, is also the creator of Prince Katandur kerapan tradition of cattle, - Tomb of Panembahan Joharsari which is one of the Duke of Sumenep to V who first embraced the religion of Islam in Bluto,
- Lombang beach is a beach with white sand and the cluster of pine shrimp plant that grows in the edge area and around the coast. The atmosphere is very calm and beautiful. Lombang beach is the only beach in Indonesia is overgrown with pine trees shrimp, - Slopeng beach is a beach with white sand stretch of mountains that surround the sides of nearly 6 km long beach. This beach area is very suitable for sea fishing fun because the area is rich in various kinds of fish, including tuna fish, - Talango Ponjug beach on the island, - Badur beach in White Rock District, - Water Parks in District Kiermata Saronggi, - Goa Jeruk in Asta Tinggi, - Goa Kuning in the District Kangean, - Goa Payudan in Guluk Guluk,
Marine Tourism / Sea
Sumenep has 126 islands:
- Bekisar chicken, chicken chicken bekisar is typical of many cultivated Sumenep for pets on the island of Kangean - Deer, an animal in the forest dwellers Arjasa. These animals include animals that are protected. - Shrimp fir, is an evergreen species that exists only in Sumenep
Special Interest Tour
- Tirta Sumekar Indah is one of the bathing pool complexes in Sumenep, located in the Rocks district, west of the city Sumenep. Its strategic location, surrounded by a teak tree plantation and cashew nuts, and not far from the cemetery tour Asta Tinggi make this bath a popular visit on weekends and school holidays, Sumenep Square is now a park Adipura, every day, especially at night dibangian Sumenep Square north, there are night markets by providing a wide range of culinary and accessories that can be enjoyed at a cheap price.
- Health tourism in the island Giliyang Dungkek District is an area in the district that have Sumenep O2/oksigen content of 21.5% or 215 000 ppm,
Dance - Moang Sangkal dance - Codi Somekkar dance - Gambu dance
Music - Saronen - Tong-tong Music - lute music
Craft - Batik, batik centers in Sumenep there in the village of West Pakandangan Bluto district, - Keris, batik centers in the villages there Sumenep Aeng tong tong district and villages Palongan Bluto, - Carving centers located in the village Sumenep Madura Karduluk, - There is a boat building center in the village of Madura Island Slopeng and Sapudi, - Home made madura mask in Marengan and Kalianget
Culture - Mamaca - Kalenengan Karaton - Tandha ' - Tan-pangantanan - Ojhung - Topeng dhalang - Lodrok - Sape Sono ' - Kerapan Sapi - Nyadar Ceremony - Ceremony bride Ngekak Sangger
Tourism event - Last night at the Palace - Arya Wiraraja Inaugural Procession - Bull racing Event - Tellasan Topak