The archipelago is volcanic and has been inhabited for thousands of years. Neolithic artifacts and Bronze Age obsidians have been excavated on the islands. The islands were used by the Etruscans who carved the "Blue Grottos". The earliest recorded history of the islands occurs with the Roman victory over the Volsci at 338 BC. According to a local legend, this was once the lost Kingdom of Tyrrhenia which sank with a narrow strip connected to mainland Italy.
During the reign of Rome's Caesar Augustus, residential expansion on the islands was encouraged and people spread from Ponza to Ventotene. Rome used the two islands as a retreat and a place to exile politically troubling citizens. Some two thousands years later the islands were used for the same reason by the Fascist regime. Agrippina the Younger, mother to the future Roman emperor, Nero, was exiled to the Pontine Islands by her brother, the then Roman emperor, Caligula, in 39 AD, before having the exile lifted by her uncle, the emperor Claudius upon his succession. Deposed Pope Saint Silverius was exiled here in 537 where he would die soon afterwards.
The Pontine were abandoned during the Middle Ages due to constant raids by Saracens and pirates. During the 18th century, the Kingdom of Naples re-colonized the islands, and they later became part of the Kingdom of Italy.
Ponza and Ventotene are populated, while the smaller islands are not. Ventotene and Santo Stefano are land and sea conservation areas supervised by the Italian State.
Currently, tiny vineyards, wild herbs and flowers, and secluded beaches and grottos make them a popular tourist destination.