In 1855, Mambajao was proclaimed as a municipality.
In 1942, the Japanese forces landed in the capital town of Mambajao, Camiguin.
In 1945, the Filipino forces of the 6th and 10th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army landed on the beaches of the capital town of Mambajao, and liberated the province from the Japanese Imperial forces in World War II during the Battle of Camiguin.
Mambajao is politically subdivided into 16 barangays.
In the 2015 census, the population of Mambajao was 38,735 people, with a density of 440 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,100 inhabitants per square mile.