Great Stirrup Cay is adjacent to Little Stirrup Cay, Royal Caribbean Cruises' private island.
Great Stirrup Cay, along with the rest of the Bahamas, was formed by tectonic and glacial shifting. The first known settlers to the Bahamas were the Lucayan Indians, relatives of the Arawaks who populated the Caribbean around 600 A.D.
Great Stirrup was a pirate hideout while the British settled in Nassau and the larger islands until 1815. This time marks the first documented settlers of Great Stirrup, and many of the structures from this settlement still stand today. Charts of this era show simply "Stirrup's Cay".
"Stirrup's Cay" remained active during the American Civil War, as the Confederates wished to continue to export cotton to Europe. The island was used as a landfall for provisioning while Federal warships patrolled the area to thwart their efforts. After the abolition of slavery, the British began to slowly withdraw from the out island colonies, and the plantation at Great Stirrup was abandoned. Great Stirrup is the northern most island in a chain of islands known as the Berry Islands, and is situated in an area along the Northwest Providence Channel.
United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt fished off the reefs of Great Stirrup Cay in 1935.
During World War II the United States, in an effort to protect its eastern shores, came to the Bahamas and Great Stirrup with a wide array of observational and defensive equipment. Among these were submersible cables, which were run along the ocean floor to listen for enemy submarines. Two "cable houses" still stand on the southeastern shore of the island, now overgrown by jungle. The United States Air Force later constructed a LORAC (LOng Range ACcuracy) radio-navigation station for use during the early space shuttle launches. This facility was later leased to Motorola and other private sector companies as contractors to the United States Air Force out of Patrick AFB near Satellite Beach, FL. New, more accurate GPS technology made the station obsolete, and it was closed in 1991 and the antenna, equipment and radials were removed.
Belcher Oil Company of Miami staked claim to the north section of the island for many years. Their interests there included real estate speculation, oil exploration, and a possible site for a corporate retreat. In 1977, Norwegian Caribbean Lines (later Norwegian Cruise Line) acquired this section from Belcher Oil.
In 1863, the Imperial Lighthouse Service erected the lighthouse on Great Stirrup Cay. The lighthouse site was manned for many years, but it is now fully automated and solar powered, making it self-sufficient. The structure stands nearly 80 feet, and its light is visible for over 20 miles.
The most common tree on the island is the coconut palm, which produces a cloudy milk and a sweet meat used in many island recipes. Another fruit-bearing tree is the Sea Grape.
Some of the creatures found on the island include several different varieties of lizard and land crab. Gulls, frigates, and sanderlings are the most prevalent bird species.
Great Stirrup Cay is a protected marine life sanctuary, and removal of anything from the water is strictly prohibited.
Great Stirrup Cay has a tropical climate. The daytime average temperatures from December to April are around 75 °F (24 °C), while the average daily temperature is between 85–93 °F (29–34 °C) from May to November.
The average rainfall is 1 inch (2.5 cm) per month from November to April and 3.5 inches (10 cm) per month from May to October.
The average sea temperature from May to November is 81–86 °F (27–30 °C); it averages 77 °F (25 °C) from December to April.
July averages the most hours of sunshine, while September through February averages the least hours of sunshine, with 7 to 8 hours per day.