Bozcaada district covers the Bozcaada island and a total of 17 islets around the main island. The total area of the district (including the islets ) is 36.7 square kilometres (14.2 sq mi). The highest point of the district is Göztepe with an altitude of 192 metres (630 ft). The district center is situated on the east side of the island at about 39°50′N 26°04′E / 39.833°N 26.067°E / 39.833; 26.067. It is situated 22 km. (12 Nautical miles) south of Dardanelles Strait (Çanakkale Boğazı) Its distance to Geyikli the nearest sea port on the main land (Anatolia) is 7.5 km ( 4.5 nautical miles). The distance from Geyikli to Çanakkale (province center) is about 40 kilometres (25 mi). Up until recently, Bozcaada was unique in Turkey as being a district with no rural population. (Because of metropolitan municipalities established after the 1980s there are now some other districts with no rural population.) Its population (all in the district center) is 2465 as of 2012. In 2010 it was 2354.
In the antiquity the island was known as Leukophrys and in Greek mythology it was Tenedos. It was mentioned in Homer's Iliad. In the medieval age it was a Byzantine possession. Towards the end of the medieval age it was left to Republic of Venice by the emperor John V Palaiologos as a ransom. In 1381 however, following Venetian Genoese War it was evacuated by the Venetians according to the Peace of Turin. In 1455 it was annexed by the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Mehmet II. Although the Venetians tried to regain the island, in 1464 the Ottoman control was secured by Mahmut Pasha. As a result of the former evacuation, the island was uninhabited during the early years of Ottoman administration and the Ottoman Empire populated the present Bozcaada district by using tax exemption. Ottoman Empire also restored the castle which was demolished during the Venetian-Genoese war. Turks called the island Bozcaada meaning grayish island and the famous cartographer Piri Reis of the 16th century also used this name in his maps. In 1923 when the Turkish Republic was proclaimed, the island was declared a district and the only settlement in Bozcaada became the municipality and district center of Çanakkale Province.
The major economic activities of Bozcaada are wineries and fishing industry. Sponge fishing, once an important economic sector, has since declined. Tourism and agriculture are emerging sectors. The ferry service, which began in 1996, is believed to boost tourism. There is also a passenger boat service from Çanakkale about 40 km (22 nautical miles) away. Total tourist beds amount to about 2500.
According to municipality of Bozcaada the historically important buildings are the following